Permeable bricks originated in the Netherlands. At that time, in order to prevent the ground from sinking, the Dutch made a small pavement brick 100 mm wide, 200 mm long, 50 or 60 mm thick, and laid on the street pavement. A gap of about 2 mm was left between the bricks. In this way, when the rain is raining, the rainwater will enter the ground from the gap between the bricks. This was later known as Dutch brick.
Later, the American company Shubuluoco invented a pavement brick with a strong water absorption function. When the brick body is filled with water, the water will drain to the ground. However, the drainage speed of this type of brick is very slow. This type of brick does not help much in a rainy climate. This type of brick is also called Shubroko pavement brick.
In the 1990s, China presented Shubrokko bricks. According to the principle of the Shubuloco brick, a technician from the Beijing Municipal Government invented a pavement brick that is covered with permeable holes and has good water permeability. Rainwater will flow from the tiny holes in the brick to the ground.
In order to strengthen the compressive and flexural strength of bricks, technicians use crushed stones as raw materials to participate in cement and adhesive admixtures so that their water permeability and strength can meet the needs of urban roads. This kind of brick is a permeable brick used on municipal pavement, and the price is relatively cheaper than ceramic permeable bricks fired with ceramics. Pavement paved with permeable bricks can be seen in Beijing's Chegongzhuang, Gongzhufen, Shijingshan and other places.
So what are the factors for building a sponge city? The sponge city mainly uses the six methods of seepage, stagnation, storage, netness, use, and drainage, which can absorb and use 70% of the rainfall on site. Today, let's talk about the "lag" of important factors in the construction of sponge cities.
Approach 1: Construction of rainwater wetlands, which uses the principle of species symbiosis, material recycling and regeneration in the ecological system, and harmonious structure and function principles to centrally purify rainwater collected in rainwater gardens and ecological retention ponds. And it has the characteristics of large buffer capacity, good processing effect, simple process, low capital investment, and low operating cost, which is extremely suitable for the extra use in the construction of sponge cities.
Approach 2: The ecological stay zone in the building is a way to use engineering soil and vegetation to store and manage runoff in shallow water depressions or scenic areas. The treatment area includes grassland filtration, sand and puddle area, organic layer or cover layer, cultivated soil And vegetation. The requirements of the ecological stay area for soil and engineering technology are different from the rain garden, and the methods are also different according to the location of the site, such as the ecological stay zone and the stay tree pond.
Approach 3: The construction of rainwater ponds, that is, the use of natural or artificial ponds or recesses for rainwater infiltration and supplementation of groundwater, rainwater ponds can effectively reduce the peak runoff. However, the rainwater pond slope protection requires the cultivation of moisture-resistant plants. If the rainwater pond is deeper (more than 60cm) around the slope protection, short shrubs should be cultivated to form short hedges to eliminate hidden dangers. At the same time, the entire rainwater pond system must form a micro-circulation to prevent water body corruption.
This article is just to introduce bricks and stones, there are other ways to achieve "stagnation" and the unknown may need to be continuously explored in practice.
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