Garden paving is a surface method that uses natural or artificial paving materials in the garden environment to be laid on the ground according to a certain method. As an organic part of the garden scene, the garden pavement is mainly through the image combination of garden roads, open spaces, squares, etc., which runs through the process of tourists' visits, and has an extremely important impact on the overall image of the building space.
It not only has the functions of arranging transportation and guiding tours, but also provides people with outstanding places for rest and activities. At the same time, it directly invents beautiful ground scenes, giving people beautiful enjoyment and enhancing the artistic effect of gardens.
There are many issues worth paying attention to if we want to make a garden paving project that is both artistic and humane. This article summarizes some common planning methods and construction techniques for garden paving, hoping to bring us some substantial help.
First, the basic paving method
▲ Pavement evolution
Combining methods + paving method to change
Second, the use and specifications of common materials for garden paving
Stone; Uses: Commonly used in paving and structures such as squares, water features, channels, roads, landscape walls, low walls, corridors, landscape pavilions, tree ponds, etc. Primarily suitable for outdoor use.
Common specifications: generally 100x100, 200x200, 300x300, 400x400, 500x500, 600x600, 800x800. The squares are 100x200, 200x400, 300x600, 400x800-200x1200. 100x600 (1200), 150x600 (1200)
Cultural stone, strip stone, sandstone, schist, volcanic rock, shale, anticorrosive wood; Uses: Commonly used in squares, channels, roads, landscape walls, low walls, corridors, landscape pavilions, tree ponds and other paving and structures. Primarily suitable for outdoor; specifications: generally 200x100 (fragmented), 300x600x30, 50x300 or 500-600, 300x500x30, etc.
Pervious brick, sintered brick, high pressure brick, grass planting brick, green brick, red brick;
Uses: Commonly used in paving and structures such as roads, sidewalks, channels, squares, landscape walls, tree ponds, corridors, and pavilions, etc., and mainly used outdoors; specifications: 200x100x50, 230x115x50, 400x600x100, etc. .
Pineapple trellis, Pinus sylvestris var.mongolica, Finnish wood, chestnut wood, high-pressure bamboo; Uses: Commonly used in paving and structures such as hydrophilic channels, wooden channels, wooden planks, corridors, spectacles, etc., and mainly used outdoors.
Specifications: Generally 100x1200, 150x1200, 100x1500, 150x1500, etc.
Material stone, gravel, river pebble, rain flower stone; Uses: Gravel, river pebble, rain flower stone are often scattered on squares, channels, and roadsides. They can also be used for road paving for drainage. The stone is mainly used in paving and structures such as Daoya, King Wall, Low Wall, Gallery, Pavilion, Tree Pond, etc. Specification: Free customization based on actual planning.
Third, the performance elements of garden paving
1. Specification for paving
Different specifications of paving pictures can achieve different spatial effects. The size of the paving pictures can have a certain effect on the external space. The larger and more developed shape will give a sense of spaciousness to the space, while the smaller and tighter shape will give the space a sense of compression and privacy. Through different standard pictures and reasonable selection of materials with different colors and textures around it, it can affect the proportional relationship of the space and construct a layout that is in harmony with the environment. Generally, materials of large specifications such as granite and polished tiles are suitable for large spaces, while floor tiles of small and medium specifications and mosaics of small specifications are more suitable for some small and medium spaces.
2. Color of paving
The color of the paving should be harmonized with the color of the surrounding environment. It is also a manifestation of the soul and can strongly penetrate the emotions of planners into people's hearts. The selection of colors should take full consideration of people's psychological feelings. Colors have distinctive characteristics, warm colors are fiery, cold colors are elegant, bright colors are light, and dark colors are quiet. The use of color should be pursued in unity, that is, the color of the pavement should be reconciled with the entire garden scene. At the same time, the basic principles of garden art, with the change of visual heating and cooling rhythms, and the change of priorities, break the uniformity of color. The most important thing is to be cautious and not bored, clear and not vulgar.
3. Texture of paving
The paving texture relies heavily on the texture of the data to convey various feelings to people. For rough space, you should choose materials with thick, thick texture and obvious lines. Roughness often makes people feel cautious, heavy, and open; otherwise, under the hot sun, rough paving can absorb better. The light doesn't look dazzling. Small spaces should use more subtle, oily, and delicate materials. The meticulous feeling gives people a light, delicate, and soft feeling. Different materials invent different beauty effects. Materials of different textures are presented in the same scene. We must pay attention to their harmony and appropriately apply the principles of similarity and contrast to form a unified and harmonious garden paving scene.
4. Pavement pattern
The garden paving can use a variety of patterns to set off and beautify the environment, and add the landscape of the garden. Patterns have various changes due to different environments and places, and different patterns give people different psychological feelings. Some pavements that use bricks to form straight or parallel lines have the effect of enhancing the planning effect on the ground; some regular ways will have a static feeling, which implies the presentation of a static space, such as square and rectangular paving; triangles and other irregular drawings The combination is more dynamic. There is also a kind of irregular pavement that is commonly used in gardens, such as chaotic stone patterns, ice cracks, etc., which can remind people of the countryside and wilderness, and has a simple and natural feeling.
Fourth, the function of garden paving
1. Division and change of space
The paving constitutes the boundary of space through changes in materials or styles, and different hints occur in people's psychology to achieve the effect of space separation and functional change. Two different function spaces often use different paving materials, or even use the same data, they also choose different paving styles.
2. Guidance and strengthening of vision
In garden planning, straight line paving is often used to guide visitors. Wherever visitors need to stop, paving without directionality or stability is used. When visitors need to pay attention to an important scenic spot, then Choose the paving that gathers in the direction of the attraction. In addition, by changing the paving lines, the sense of space can be strengthened. For example, the depth of the paving surface is emphasized by the lines parallel to the horizon, and the width is emphasized by the paving lines perpendicular to the horizon. Using this function reasonably can Adjusting the size of the space visually makes the small space larger and the narrow road wider.
3. Expression of mood and theme
Outstanding scenery paving can often enhance, complement or interpret the theme to the space, and use paving pictures to strengthen the artistic conception. This is also one of the methods of garden art in China. This type of paving uses words, graphics, special symbols, etc. to convey the theme of the space and deepen the artistic conception. It is common in some monumental, intellectual, and guiding spaces.
In addition to function, paving needs to master a few skills.
Fifth, grasp the garden paving skills
Be clever planning. Garden paving is an extension of pavement paving, including paving in squares and yards. Chinese gardens focus on "being in love with scenery", and this is no exception in paving planning. For example, the carved brick, pebble, and intarsia reincarnation road in the Forbidden City of Beijing is made of carved bricks, finely ground tiles, and carefully selected colors of pebbles. The road is paved with pictures of fables, folk paper-cuts, four treasures of the study, auspicious words, flowers, birds, insects and fish. The deck of a small bridge in Beijing's Longtan Lake Park is paved with pebbles to create a picture of dragons and phoenixes. The pavilion in front of Chunwu Dock of Humble Administrator's Garden in Suzhou chose Begonia pictures. The paving in the square in front of the Peony Garden of the Beijing Botanical Garden uses pictures of peony flowers in full bloom.
Secondly, select materials skillfully
. The paving of garden roads in China has been very sophisticated since ancient times. In "Yuan Ye", "the narrow garland is suitable for stones, and the bricks in the empty halls must be made of bricks." There are many classic pavement cases in garden paving for reference. For example, use smooth concrete bricks and dark water-washed stones or fine striped bricks to pave the ground. Round water-brushed stones and pebble are used to build the floor. Various ice cracks paved with white cement. In addition, various striped and gully concrete bricks are also used for paving the ground. Under the sun, good light and shadow effects can occur, which not only has good decoration, but also reduces the reflective intensity of the road surface and improves the road surface. Anti-sliding performance.
Third, we must pay attention to the use of ecological and environmental protection materials
. Large-scale paving on the ground will bring about a rise in surface temperature, which will result in poor drainage and ventilation of the soil, as well as the growth of flowers and trees. In addition to the selection of grass-covered flooring, planners should also pay attention to the use of water-permeable and breathable environmental protection grounding materials.
Having said the above skills, it is finally time to mention the construction of garden paving.
Six, garden paving construction skills
Due to the difference in the paving information of the garden paving and the pavement layer of the garden, the paving skills and construction methods are also different. Here are some common paving methods of the block surface layer.
Paving method for colorful concrete stamping road
The colorful concrete stamping road is paved with concrete and the ground is made of cement wear-resistant materials. It is based on Portland cement or ordinary Portland cement and wear-resistant aggregates, and is composed of appropriate additives. Dry mix information.
The detailed process is as follows: ground treatment → laying concrete → vibrating and compacting the concrete appearance → covering the first layer of colorful reinforced powder → compacting and smoothing the colorful appearance → sprinkle and release powder → compression molding → maintenance → washed construction surface → boring maintenance → Apply sealant → Delivery.
The bottom floor approach is similar to the general bottom floor approach. The key point is the surface layer approach of colorful concrete stamping park paths. Its quality directly affects the final quality of the garden road. In the early stage, colorful concrete was generally selected by on-site mixing and on-site pouring and tamping with a flat-type vibrating machine to directly level and smooth the crab. Before the concrete is about to set, the markings are pressed out with a special mold. Cement-based abrasion resistant materials for product concrete floors can now also be used.
Colorful concrete should be batched and poured once to avoid color differences caused by repeated batching. The markings of the colorful concrete stamping road are formed according to the mold, so the mold should be customized according to the requirements of the construction drawing, or the appropriate mold should be purchased from the relevant professional unit.
Paving method of wooden paved garden road
The wooden paved garden road is a garden road paved with wood. In the garden project, the wooden paved garden road is an outdoor sidewalk. The surface wood is generally made of high-quality wood that is wear-resistant, corrosion-resistant, clear in texture, high in strength, difficult to crack and deform.
The general practice of Mupu Diyuan Road is: compacting of plain soil → gravel cushion → plain concrete cushion → brick pier → wooden grille → surface plank. From this sequence, it can be seen that the ground floor of the wooden paved garden road is basically the same as the general block stone garden road, except that brick pier and wooden joists are added. The moisture content of the wood of the planks and wooden joists should be less than 12%, and the wood should also be treated with fire prevention, anticorrosion and anti-moth before paving.
(1) Brick pier
Generally, standard brick and cement mortar masonry is selected, and the masonry height should be determined according to the overhead height of the wooden paving floor and the operating conditions. The distance between brick piers should generally not be greater than 2m, otherwise the end face specifications of wooden joists will increase. The placement of brick pier is generally the same as the placement of wooden joists. If the distance of wooden joists is 50cm, the distance of brick pier should also be 50cm. The elevation of the brick pier should meet the planning requirements. If necessary, the top of the brick pier can be leveled with cement mortar or fine stone concrete.
(2) Wooden joists
The main effect of the wooden joist is to fix and support the surface layer. If analyzed from the force situation, it can be said to be a small beam. The selection of wooden joist sections should be different according to the distance of the brick pier. The distance between the brick pier is large, the span of the wooden joist is large, and the section specifications are correspondingly larger. When laying wooden joists, leveling is required. The wooden joists must be installed firmly and straight. It is necessary to set up scissor braces between wooden joists to add its lateral stability, make the individual grids one by one, and add the stiffness of the wooden paved garden road. In addition, the setting of scissors braces can also play a certain restraining effect on the warp deformation of the wooden joists themselves. Therefore, in the bottom of the overhead wood, the setting of scissors braces between the wooden joists is a structural measure to ensure quality. Scissors are placed on both sides of the wooden joist and fixed on the wooden joist with iron nails. The distance should be set according to the planning requirements.
(3) Laying of surface boards
The paving of the surface planks is mainly fixed by iron nails, that is, the surface planks are fixed on the wooden joists with iron nails. The joints of the slats are generally flat and wrong. The laying direction of wooden slats is generally perpendicular to the direction in which people walk, and it can also follow the direction in which people walk. This should be laid in accordance with the requirements of construction drawings. Before nails are nailed into the wooden board, they can also follow the direction of people walking, which should be laid in accordance with the requirements of construction drawings. Before nailing the nail into the wooden board, first smash the nail cap flat, and then push the nail nail cap into the wooden board 3 ~ 5mm with something. After paving the wooden boards on Mupu Diyuan Road, use a portable planer to plan the appearance, and then the painter will carry out painting operations such as sand, inlay, batch, and painting.
Paving method for grass planting brick paving
Grass planting paving is a kind of paving that cultivates grass in the holes or gaps of the bricks. If the grass is strong, this kind of paving looks like a piece of green grass, and it is flat and solid on the ground. Some are used as parking lots.
The ground floor of grass planting bricks is as follows: compacted plain soil → crushed stone cushion → plain concrete cushion → fine sand layer → bricks and cultivated soil and grass seeds. Another method is: tamping of plain soil → gravel cushion → fine sand layer → bricks and cultivated soil, grass seeds.
It can be seen from the ground floor practices of grass-brick flooring that plain soil compaction, gravel cushion, and concrete cushion are the same as the general ground-level practices of granite roads, except that there is a fine sand layer in the grass-brick flooring And the difference in surface information between the two. Therefore, the key point of the grass-planting brick laying method lies in the paving of the grass-covering brick.
The grass planting bricks should be selected according to the requirements of the plan drawing. Now commonly used grass planting bricks include two-hole bricks made of cement, and small cement bricks without holes. When laying grass-planting bricks, the distance between the bricks and the bricks is generally about 50mm. The center is here, the cultivation soil is sprinkled, and then the grass seeds are dialed. Now there is also a cultivated grass brick joist. This is a joist made of plastic with a certain strength. The product is 500mm × 500mm. It is laid directly on the ground and sprinkled with cultivation soil. After the grass is cultivated, it becomes Planted grass paving.
Paving method for permeable brick paving
Functions and characteristics of permeable bricks: (1) All materials are various waste ceramics, quartz sand, etc. Square brick waste is used as the fabric of permeable bricks, and the bottom material is mostly ceramic waste. (2) The permeability and water retention of the permeable brick are very strong, the water permeability can reach more than 5mm / s, and its water retention can reach more than 12L / ㎡. Due to its outstanding water permeability and water retention, the rainwater will automatically penetrate the bottom of the brick to the ground when it rains, and some of the water will remain in the brick. The rainwater will not flow in the same way as on the cement pavement and finally flows into the river through the groundwater channel. When the weather is fine, the water that has penetrated under the bricks or stayed inside the bricks will evaporate into the atmosphere, which has the effect of conditioning the humidity of the air, lowering the atmospheric temperature, and eradicating the city's "heat island".
The permeable brick's excellent water permeability and water retention result from its porosity of about 20%. The strength of the permeable brick can satisfy cars with a load of 10t or more. In foreign countries, urban sidewalks, pedestrian streets, apartment parking lots, etc. can be paved like granite during construction.
The method of laying permeable bricks is the same as the method of laying granite blocks. Because the yellow sand underneath is dry, it is more convenient than the laying of granite. The bottom layer of the permeable brick is: tamped plain soil → gravel cushion → gravel sand cushion → reverse osmosis geotextile → 1: 3 dry mixed yellow sand → permeable brick surface layer.
It can be seen from the bottom layer of the permeable brick that a layer of reverse osmosis geotextile is added to the bottom layer, so that the water permeable and water retaining performance of the permeable brick can be fully exerted. The method of laying the geotextile can be operated according to the requirements of the product manual.
Paving method and construction key points of granite stone garden road
Before paving the road, granite specifications should be selected according to the requirements of the construction drawings. A few irregular granites should be cut and processed at the site. First select granite with missing edges, corners, cracks, and some pollution and discoloration, and check the set square without any defects. If there are deviations in the standard specifications, edging should be corrected. The surface layer of some garden roads should be paved into a striped pattern. The granites selected should be stacked according to different colors, different sizes, and different oblate shapes. It can only be used conveniently when paving.
Regarding curved roads and arcs, granite is processed according to plane radian, and granite is stacked according to different specifications. Number different colors and different shapes of granite, which is convenient for construction.
Before laying the granite block stone, the elastic line should be carried out first. After the elastic line, a number of main lines should be laid as a baseline, the effect of the standard reinforcement, and then spread to the two ends, the granite should also be poured with water Wet and dry after use in the shade. When paving, evenly lay a layer of cement mortar on the leveling layer, apply it with the brush, and use 20mm thick 1: 3 dry hard cement mortar as the bonding layer. After the granite is laid, hit it with a rubber hammer. Laying height, but also make the mortar bonding layer flat and dense. Test the granite and check whether the colors, numbers, and parquets meet the requirements and whether the pictures are beautiful. For projects with higher requirements, the same sections should be made first, and the construction unit and the supervision engineer should be invited to carry out inspections, and large-scale construction will be carried out after meeting the requirements. The level on the same ground has a height difference, such as the intersections of steps, water features, tree ponds, etc. Before paving, granite should be cut and the arc curve should be polished to ensure that the markings are standardized, fine and beautiful. After the granite is laid, the moisture required by the colorful cement mortar during the hardening process is selected to ensure that the granite and mortar are firmly bonded. Trampling is prohibited within 3 days of the maintenance period. The surface of the granite surface layer should be clean, flat, and the axe chisel surface texture is clear, regular, and color. The appearance is flat after paving. The axe chisel surface texture is interspersed and regular, the joints are uniform, the periphery is straight, and the mosaic is correct. , And other disadvantages.
Paving method of cement brick road
Cement brick is made of high-quality color cement and sand, mechanically mixed, and fully maintained. It has high strength, wear resistance, beautiful color and many types. The surface of the cement brick can also be made into various shapes such as convex patterns and round convex patterns. The paving method of the cement surface brick garden road is roughly the same as that of granite stone garden road. Cement bricks are machine-made bricks and have more colors than granite. Therefore, they should be classified according to colors and markings before paving. Bricks with cracks, corners, and defects in appearance should be removed.
The detailed operation steps are as follows:
(1) Bottom cleaning: On the cleaned ground, find the rules and flooding, sweep the cement slurry, and then leave the thickness of the cement surface brick to make a gray cake according to the above ground level. Use 1: 3 dry hard mortar to punch the ribs and scrape them. The thickness is about 20mm. When shaving, the mortar must be beaten, shaved, and watered for maintenance.
(2) Pre-laying of elastic line: Pop the positioning cross center line on the leveling layer, pre-lay the tile according to the plan drawing, reserve 2mm for the top of the seam of the brick, and eject the four sides of the cement tile with ink lines according to the pre-layed orientation, and then draw on the side line The dividing point of each row of bricks.
(3) Wet in water: Before paving, the surface brick should be soaked in water for 2 ~ 3 hours, and then taken out and dried before use.
(4) The paving of cement tiles should be completed before the mortar condenses. When paving, the tiles should be flat and set correctly. Before continuing the paving after the construction interval, the cement mixed mortar extruded from the paved tiles should be removed.
(5) Paving stones, cement-mixed mortar on the ground bonding layer, smoothing and smoothing. The back of the cement tile should be cleaned and cleaned, first brush out a layer of cement lime slurry, spread with the brush, and then use a mallet to chisel after being in place. Pay attention to manipulating the thickness of the adhesive layer to reduce the impact. During the paving construction process, if non-whole bricks are displayed, the stone cutting machine is used to cut them.
(6) After the cement tile is paved for 1-2 days, fill the joint with 1: 1 dilute cement mortar. The cement mortar overflowing on the surface layer should be removed before cohesion. After the cement mortar in the gap is condensed, the surface layer is cleaned and cleaned. Watering and maintenance for 24 hours after completion, no one should trample within 3 to 4 days after completion.
Paving method of Xiaoqingzhuanyuan Road
Before paving the Xiaoqing Brick Garden Road, the specifications and standards of Xiaoqing Brick should be selected according to the requirements of the plan drawing. First, select the small green bricks with missing edges, corners, cracks, and some pollution and discoloration, and check the set square without defects. The standard specifications have deviations, and the edges should be repaired. Before laying the small green bricks, the elastic lines should be carried out first, and then the sample sections should be laid first according to the requirements of the plan drawing, especially the mat patterns, herringbone patterns, oblique willow leaves, cross stitch, gossip brocade, etc. Garden roads with various surface layer methods such as turtle back brocade should be paved in advance to see if the surface layer method meets the requirements, and then paved in a large area.
(1) Bottom layer and cushion layer; the bottom layer method is generally compaction of plain soil → gravel cushion → plain concrete cushion → mortar bonding layer.
In the cushion construction, the elevation control operation should be done well. The thickness of the crushed stone and plain concrete cushion should be done according to the requirements of the construction drawings. The sand stone cushion is generally thin.
(2) Pre-laying of elastic line: Pop-up positioning center line of cross on Soviet concrete cushion, pre-lay a section according to the surface layer method indicated by the construction icon, and after large-scale installation, meet the requirements.
(3) Firstly, make the “Ziya bricks” at both ends of the garden road, which are equivalent to the side stones of modern roads. Therefore, it is necessary to pave them first, use cement mortar as cushion stones, and strengthen them.
(4) The small green bricks and the small green bricks should be squeezed tightly. After the pavement is finished, they should be cleaned with fine gray.
Cobblestone Road Paving
Cobblestone is a smooth river scouring stone with a shape of 10 ~ 40mm. The garden road paved with cobblestones looks prudent and practical, and has a Jiangnan style garden. This garden road is also often used as a fitness trail for people. The garden road paved with pebbles is often slightly monotonous. If you add a few flat flat cut stones between the pebbles, or a few colored pebbles, it will be much better. When paving a cobblestone road, pay attention to the shape, size, and color of the pebble. Especially when equipped with cut stone slabs, the pictures that are interwoven with each other should be natural, and the stone quality and color of cut stones and pebbles should be completely avoided to show the beauty of road surface changes.
During construction, the size and height of the pebbles are completely different. In order to make the pavement flat, work must be done on the roadbed. Fill the wet mortar first, then fill the pebbles and cut stones one by one. The pebbles are egg-shaped. The smooth and round side should be selected. When used as a yard or a garden road, it is generally buried in the mortar horizontally. When it is used, it is usually buried in the mortar vertically, and the embedding amount is about 2/3 of the pebble, which is relatively firm. The larger part of the embedded mortar makes the road surface more regular and highly common. Do not place the thinnest side of the pebble in the mortar, it will fall off easily. After placing the pebbles, fill in the thin mortar between the pebbles, and the filling is finished. The lines of the pebbles should be irregular in shape, and never be cross-shaped or straight. In addition, the density of pebbles should also be balanced, not partially congested and partially loose. If you want to make a streak, you need to perform layout and staking before laying.
Immediately after the cobblestone is laid on the ground, use a wet rag to quietly scrub the stucco on the outside to keep the cobblestone clean and pay attention to the maintenance of products at the construction site.
The subgrade method of Cobblestone Park Road is generally compacted with plain soil → gravel cushion → plain concrete cushion → mortar bonding layer → pebble surface layer. This method of the bottom layer is the same as that of the ordinary garden road, but because its appearance is cobblestone, the adhesion and integrity are poor, so if the bottom layer is not stable enough, the pebble surface layer is likely to loosen and peel or crack, so the entire cobblestone garden road The ground floor construction is also a very important step in the construction.